Two concepts that are part of the everyday life of those who carry out an import and export procedure are the primary and secondary zone.
This classification is the way used to control the transit of goods and to restrict the places where goods imported or to be exported may circulate or be stored.
Decree 6.759/2009, of the Federal Government, establishes the customs enclosures as areas in which it is possible to move, store and dispatch goods imported or for export, always under customs control - which are the measures used by a country to supervise or regulate the traffic of goods across its borders.
And those enclosures are divided into two zones.
These zones are part of the customs territory - the place where a country's customs authority acts, controlling foreign trade operations (import and export). It is a geographical territory with uniform customs regulations.
The customs territory shall cover the whole of the national territory and from there the customs enclosures shall be established.
There are customs territories of various kinds:
Example of autonomous territories:
Example of dependent territories:
The Primary Zone is the internal part of ports, airports, customs enclosures and places empowered at the land border by the customs authority for loading and unloading of goods, or embarkation and disembarkation of passengers, coming or going abroad.
The Primary Zone shall consist of the following areas demarcated by the local customs authority:
For customs control purposes, Export Processing Zones (EPZs) are primary zones.
The ZPEs are industrial districts where companies located there operate with tax suspension, foreign exchange freedom (they are not obliged to convert into Reais the currency obtained from exports) and enjoy simplified administrative procedures.
In Brazil, there are currently 24 Export Processing Zones authorized by the Federal Government. Some of them are:
EPA of Acre, in Senador Guiomard - AC, EPA of Barra dos Coqueiros, in Barra dos Coqueiros - SE and the EPA of Uberaba, in Uberaba - MG.
For the demarcation of the primary zone, the body or company responsible for the administration of the place to be cleared shall be heard.
The customs authority may require the Primary Area, or part thereof, to be protected by obstacles preventing the indiscriminate access of vehicles, persons or animals.
Customs Surveillance Zones may also be demarcated on the seashore or border strip where the stay or movement of goods, vehicles, persons or animals shall be subject to specific tax requirements, prohibitions and restrictions.
In Brazil, the Secondary Zone comprises the part of the customs territory not considered as a primary zone, including the territorial waters and the airspace.
We can mention the customs or IRS inspectorates or IRS stations with sections/sectors/divisions of customs control. The Secondary Zones can also be known as Dry Port, EADI or Interior Customs Station which are bonded enclosures of public use in which operations of movement, storage and customs clearance of goods and luggage are executed, with control made by the Federal Revenue Service.
Note: Both the Primary and Secondary Zones are used for the release of imports and exports.
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